e-book Luces en la oscuridad: Una guía para ser feliz (Spanish Edition)

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The pour point is the lowest temperature at which a fuel sample will flow. The pour point also has implications for the handling of fuels during cold temperatures. Copper Strip Corrosion Detection of copper corrosion from petroleum products by the copper strip tarnish test measures the degree to which the fuel can have a corroding effect on various metals.

The corrosivity of a fuel has implications on storage and use of the fuel. Then the strips are washed in a solvent and compared to the descriptions in Table given below. Light orange, almost the same as freshly polished strip b. Dark orange 2 Moderate Tarnish a. Claret red b. Lavender c. Multicolored with lavender blue or silver, or both, overlaid on claret red d.

Silvery e. Brassy or gold 3 Dark Tarnish a. Magenta overcast on brassy strip b. Multicolored with red and green showing peacock , but no gray 4 Corrosion a. Transparent black, dark gray or brown with peacock green barely showing b.

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Graphite or lusterless black c. Glossy or jet black Ramsbottom Carbon Residue Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products determines the amount of carbon residue left after evaporation and pyrolysis of an oil, indicating its relative propensity to form coke.

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It is a potential indicator of the likelihood that a fuel would form deposits from carbon in an engine's combustion chamber. Heating Value, Net and Gross There are actually two heating values in common use, the higher, or gross, heating value and the lower, or net, heating value. Both quantities are measured using a calorimeter where the heat transfer from the hot gases resulting from combustion of the fuel with air is measured as the gases are cooled to the initial temperature of the reactants.

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The higher heating value assumes that all of the water in the products is condensed liquid while the lower heating value assumes all of the water is present as vapor, even though the product temperature may be below the dew point temperature. The lower heating value is the most common value used for engine applications.

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It is used as an indicator of the energy content of the fuel. In general, the higher the heating value of the fuel, the less fuel that will be required to do a given amount of work. Acid Number Acid number is the quantity of base, expressed as milligrams KOH per gram of sample, required to titrate the sample to a specified end point Biodiesel limit 0. The acid number is also a measure of free fatty acids.

The free fatty acids can lead to corrosion and are a symptom of water in the fuel or fuel oxidation. This is also an indication of the condition of the stability of the fuel, because the acid number increases as the fuel ages. Test method - The sample is dissolved in a mixture of toluene and iso-propanol that contains a small amount of water. The sample is titrated potentiometrically with alcoholic potassium hydroxide.

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The meter readings are plotted against the respective volumes of titrating solution and the end points are taken at well defined inflections in the resulting curve. It is applicable to naphthas, distillates, oils, gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel and jet fuel. Some process catalysts used in petroleum and chemical refining can be poisoned when trace amounts of sulfur are present. Test method: - The sample is inserted into a high temperature combustion tube where sulfur is oxidized to sulfur dioxide SO2 in an oxygen rich atmosphere. Sample combustion gases are next exposed to UV light. The SO2 is excited, from which fluorescence is emitted as it returns to its stable state.

The fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier tube and the resulting signal is a measure of the amount of sulfur contained in the sample.

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Sulfated Ash This test method determines the amount of mineral ash remaining after a fuel is burned. For biodiesel, this test is an important indicator of the quantity of residual metals in the fuel that could come from the catalyst used in the esterification process. The lower limit of this test is 0.

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Test Method — The sample is ignited and burned until only ash and carbon remain. The iodine value is an indicator of the unsaturation of the fuel, which has been linked with formation of engine deposits and problems in storing the fuel. Water and Sediment This test method covers the determination of the volume of free water and sediment in middle distillate fuels. This test is a measure of cleanliness of the fuel. For B biodiesel it is particularly important because water can react with the esters to make free fatty acids and can support microbial growth in storage tanks.

This method used to measure water and sediment is only sensitive to free water. It uses a centrifuge to separate small water droplets and particles to be sure they do not exceed 0. An earlier method D specified that a solvent should be added to allow the measurement to include dissolved water but since diesel fuel will only dissolve about 50 ppm of water, this has little impact on whether the fuel exceeds the specification value.

This test is particularly important when working with biodiesel because biodiesel is usually water-washed to remove traces of soap and free glycerol. Vacuum drying is usually needed to remove residual water following the washing process.

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Test Method - A ml sample of undiluted fuel is centrifuged in a tube readable to 0. After centrifugation, the volume of water and sediment which has settled into the tip of the centrifuge tube is read to the nearest 0. The lower the friction the higher the lubricity. Pure biodiesel and high level blends have excellent lubricity. Gas Chromatography Chromatographic methods are used to separate a mixture of compounds based on their physical properties.

It determines the amount of glycerol in derivatized form , mono- and diacylglycerols both also in derivatized form , triacylglycerols, and methyl esters in a biodiesel sample. In GC, the mixture is separated mainly by the boiling point and the structure imparting a feature termed polarity of the individual compounds. To carry out a GC analysis, the sample is usually dissolved in low concentrations in an organic solvent and then injected into the gas chromatograph.

In some cases, a sample needs to be derivatized with a specific reagent in order to obtain a useful gas chromatogram.

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This is the case for biodiesel. Glycerol and the mono- and di-acylglycerols contain free hydroxyl groups, causing these materials not to perform well in GC. Derivatization in the case of biodiesel with a silylating reagent improves their performance considerably.

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Derivatization can provide better resolution between compounds with similar properties. After injection into the gas chromatograph, the sample is separated on a column. A column is a long, thin path capillary tube that contains a material with which the sample components interact more or less strongly depending on their structure polarity! Usually, the solvent used and, if applicable, residual derivatizing agent used for preparing the sample are the first materials to elute i.

When the detector detects a material eluting from the column at a certain retention time i. Generally, the integrated value of the peak an amplitude over time is proportional to the amount of material causing them. This constitutes the usefulness of GC in quantifying the amounts of components in a mixture Fuel Stability A fuel is considered unstable when it undergoes chemical changes that produce undesirable consequences such as deposits, acidity, or a bad smell.

There are three different types of stability commonly described in the technical literature. Thermal stability addresses fuel changes that occur due to elevated temperature. These changes may occur at conditions encountered in modern fuel injection systems as fuel is recirculated through the engine cylinder head and back to the fuel tank.