Psychological Medicine, 32, Int J Aging Hum Dev. CES-D Centre for Epidemiological Studies — Depression tool Description: A very common tool for depression specific screening assessment in population mental health research. Without copyright this 20 item instrument takes around 5 minutes to complete. Again, this tool has been validated in a number of settings with different patient groups. An abbreviated 10 item scale is also currently being investigated so far with evidence that it can be used as an indicator of symptom severity not but is solely diagnostic.
Measures: Provides a score which correlates with DSM-V major depressive disorder diagnosis and severity. Delivered: Self-complete questionnaire, telephone interview Copyrighted? Applied psychological measurements, 1, Costelloe S, et al. Impact of anxiety and depressive symptoms on perceptions of stigma in persons living with HIV disease in rural versus urban North Carolina. AIDS Care, 27 12 Olagunju AT et al. Screening for depression with Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised and its implication for consultation-liaison psychiatry practice among cancer subjects: a perspective from a developing country.
Available with 9 items, and recently in a 2 question form PHQ Meta-analysis has demonstrated that the PHQ-9 can be used to diagnose major depressive disorder. Significant work has gone into validating the PHQ-9 and ensuring its diagnostic accuracy in a range of populations and contexts.
It may be delivered by interviewer, including over the telephone, but most commonly exists as a self-report questionnaire, with the PHQ-9 or PHQ-2 often tacked onto the end of other exposure and demographic survey questions. Measures : Score of depressive symptomatology.
Delivered: Self-complete questionnaire. Copyright enforced by Pfizer Population: In several co-morbid sub-populations and demographic subpopulations References: Manea L, et al. A diagnostic meta-analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 PHQ-9 algorithm scoring method as a screen for depression. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. Moriarty AS, et al. Screening and case finding for major depressive disorder using the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9 : a meta-analysis.
GDS Geriatric Depression Scale Description: A screening tool specifically for screening for risk of depression in elderly populations, available in a short form 15 questions and long form 30 items. Results cannot diagnose depression, only inform later clinical assessment. There does not exist a definitive age grouping which makes this measurement test most appropriate, although most validation studies have been conducted in people over Measures: A 15 or point score with cut offs to identify severity of depressive symptoms.
Can be used to monitor severity of depression once formal diagnosis established. Delivered : By a trained interviewer, or self-completed. No Population: Eponymously, only validated in elderly populations in community or hospital settings, across a good number of cultural groups. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report.
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J Psychiatr Res. BMC Psychiatry, Feb 5; The tool is also available in a short form GAD-2 item questionnaire which is often added onto the end of other longer surveys. Measures: Score of anxiety symptomatology Delivered: Self-complete questionnaire Copyrighted? Copyright enforced by Pfizer Population: Validated in populations with co-morbid physical disability especially neurology patients, and in populations of a few major countries. Arch Intern Med. Delivered by a trained interviewer some time is spent with both the participant and an additional informant, perhaps carer or relative. Delivered in around 5 minutes, with wide validation in cross-cultural settings, and avoiding some of the cultural and educational-level biases of other dementia-related cognitive assessment tools, CSI-D may be best placed for application upon large populations across countries.
Measures: A screening tool, with a score representing severity of cognitive impairment and dementia symptoms. Delivered: By a trained interviewer. There is the option for an informant interview to provide significantly improved validity and reliability of the assessment. No Population: Only widely validated in the elderly 65 years population, but has significant work used in cross-cultural settings.
Validity and reliability of a Taiwan Chinese version of the community screening instrument for dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. Prince M, Acosta D, et al. A brief dementia screener suitable for use by non-specialists in resource poor settings--the cross-cultural derivation and validation of the brief Community Screening Instrument for Dementia.
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Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 26 9 MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment Description: An increasingly widely used cognitive screening and severity assessment tool validated for use in psychiatric and neurology patients. Consisting of tests of several cognitive domains, an informant collateral history is not required. A short form SF-MoCA is also available but less widely validated, although it seems to be able to boast reasonable results comparable to the full form. There is significant overlap in usefulness between the MoCA and another tool, the Mini Mental State Examination MMSE , both of which are screening and severity assessment tools for cognitive impairment.
Both should be considered by researchers, however the MMSE is less widely used given its enforced copyright status. This copyright has progressively stifled research into validation of the tool and MoCA has arguably over taken it as being validated in the most number of settings and patient groups. Measures: Score out of 30 of cognitive function Delivered: By a minimally trained interviewer Copyrighted?
No Population: Validated among psychiatry and neurology patients for cognitive function, across many cross-cultural populations, demographics and ages. Clin Neuropsychol. Psychiatry Res. WHO-5 The WHO-5 Wellbeing Index Description: Is a widely used brief screening assessment of mental wellbeing developed in to assess inter-cultural comparable values of mental wellbeing across populations, self-administered in less than 2 minutes. Thus far validation studies have shown good consistency between WHO-5 and severity of depression symptomatology. The WHO provide extensive support in the use of this measurement tool on their website.
Furthermore, the questions are widely added onto the end of other health related questionnaires to assess an emotional wellbeing component of a range of co-morbid physical and mental conditions. Measures: Participants are presented with 5 statements, to which they response on a 5-point Likert scale. Scores are multiplied by 4 to make a score against a perfect wellbeing score of Cut off scores below 28 is strongly suggestive of depression and further assessment should be made at this point.
Delivered: Self-report questionnaire Copyrighted? No Population: Exists in translations for over 30 languages. Validated in, and can be administered to, people over the age of 9. Psychother Psychosom. The questionnaire asks the interviewee to identify up to nine people in their lives they could count on to aid them in a variety of difference presented scenarios including being made redundant.
This tool continues, to then assess aspects of social support, housing situation and other social factors independently associated with clinical mental health outcomes.
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SPQ scores have been shown to be correlated to scores given on psychiatric morbidity assessments. Measures: 27 items assessed on a 6 point Likert scale. Delivered: Self or interviewer administered in around 10 minutes. No Population: Has not been validated to the same extent as previously described tools, but has been so in only a couple of cross-cultural examples.
References: Sarason, I. Assessing social support: The Social Support Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, Nosratabadi M, Halvaiepour Z. J Res Health Sci. Specifically items relating to pain, energy levels, social connections, home environment, work life etc. Measures: Mixed domain assessment of quality of life Delivered: Self report, or administered by researcher. References: World Health Organisation. Measuring quality of life. The World Health Organization Quality of life instruments.
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WHO Geneva. Spatial geo-mapping of the houses whose residents self-completed a postal CES-D10 paper questionnaire demonstrated how close individuals lived from green space. Within the same questionnaire were questions on demographics, general health, other potential confounders and other variables of interest within the study. The relationship of green space, depressive symptoms and perceived general health in urban population.
Scand J Public Health. MINI: The relation between the external built residential environment and mental health conditions in Kenya Using MINI, likely diagnoses of various clinical mental health conditions including a number of anxiety disorders, depression, and bipolar disorder were assessed in a population from rural Kenya. Notable associations between certain features of the built residential environment and mental health conditions were noted. For example, external wall materials may be related to feelings of in security, draft within the property and therefore perhaps, authors hypothesize, sleep quality.
Interviewers assessed a range of aspects of the residential environment and interviewed randomly selected occupants, from low, middle and high income neighbourhoods in the same municipality. Ochodo C et al. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults. J Urban Health. GHQ and built environment in the south of Wales A cross-sectional study looking at self reported mental health as measured by GHQ, in relation to social factors and built environment. GHQ outcome scores were analysed against environmental quality, social cohesion etc.
For example, a change of 1 standard deviation in self-reported neighborhood quality resulted in a nearly half a point drop in GHQ score. Similarly those reporting quality neighborhoods had an adjusted 0. Araya R et al. Perceptions of social capital and the built environment and mental health. Soc Sci Med. Practical Psychiatric Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. Social Psychology: Research Methods.